Northern Lights Psychology Conference Schedule
All events will be held in several conference spaces of the Grand Ballroom (Room 214 C&D) on the 2nd floor of the Memorial Union. The event will take place Saturday, October 16, 2021.
Registration and Networking Breakfast
8-9 a.m. | Mezzanine (Outside Ballroom 214C)
Paper Session 1
9-10 a.m. | Ballroom 214C
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Prevalence and Potential Treatment Applications Among UND Students
Ellei Burmeister and Dr. RaeAnn Anderson
The current study seeks to examine the level of nicotine dependence for college-aged ENDS users, compare demographic characteristics, determine possible motivators for initiating use, history of psychological disorders, and personal education surrounding vaping. A separate protocol will be submitted for the intervention study although participants from this study will be eligible and recruited for the intervention phase. A cross-sectional Qualtrics survey is administered to >300 college students using UND’s SONA’s system (max 400). Several scales will be included that measure constructs such as substance use, anxiety, depression, social support, and life satisfaction, perceived stress, mindfulness, sexual violence history, and physical health. Approximately 10 participants will then be recruited to participate in the intervention study.
Estimation of Sensitivity, Specificity and Predictive Power of Tests for the Detection of malingered ADHD, drawn from the Published Literature: A Method for Clinicians who Routinely Evaluate ADHD
Joseph C. Miller and Jeremy M. Raines
Given the high prevalence of malingered ADHD, clinical decision-making should benefit from the wealth of empirical literature. However, not all relevant published research is directly applicable to real-world detection of malingered ADHD. We address (a) obstacles to clinicians use of published malingering research, (b) common translational roadblocks arising from the design of published studies, and (c) critical statistical considerations (e.g., in-study versus local base rate of malingering) in clinical application of published research. We propose and test a simple method to estimate diagnostic accuracy of malingering detection methods using data from recent published studies. We additionally review possible sources of error to consider when using this method.
Making ADHD Assessment a Little Bit Better: The Much-Neglected Incremental Validity of Assessment Tools as Reported in Published Research
Helen Sawaya, Joseph C. Miller, and Jeremy M. Raines
Most ADHD evaluators employ a battery of tests, rather than a single indicator, to make diagnostic decisions. However, the extent to which specific tests actually improve the accuracy of diagnosis is rarely, if ever, addressed in the literature. We argue this is a serious omission, as such research has the potential to reduce the cost and time associated with ADHD assessment, while improving its accuracy. We report on a review of 16 such studies, where the lead author evaluated the incremental validity of tests by several means. Based on the analysis, symptom reports from a collateral source and data from continuous performance tests (CPTs) demonstrated incremental validity over self-reports and clinical interviews, while measures of intellectual and executive functioning did not.
Religious Influences in Labeling and Recovering From Rape
Danielle Piggott and RaeAnn Anderson
Trauma, specifically interpersonal trauma like rape, has been shown to have a dramatic influence on religiosity. This study sought to understand the impact of rape on religious beliefs and behaviors as well as the influence of religiosity on rape acknowledgement. A sample of 310 college-aged women completed an online survey with questionnaires about their religiosity and sexual history. Results indicated those who experienced rape experienced significantly greater change in their religious beliefs compared to those who had not been raped and those who experienced other trauma. The relationship between rape acknowledgement and religiosity was significantly mediated by ambivalent sexism and endorsement of rape myths about women lying about rape. In all, rape has the potential to significantly alter one’s religious beliefs, and religiosity has a unique influence on how one understands and labels a personal experience of rape.
Telemental Health in the Time of COVID-19: Challenges and Lessons Learned from Community Mental Health Clients
John-Paul Legerski, Hillary Smith, and Desiree Giesen
The outbreak of Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) rapidly became a global pandemic in early 2020 causing major shifts from traditional in-person services to telemental health in community mental health centers. Ten clients and 12 parents receiving services at a community mental health center were interviewed regarding their satisfaction and perception of barriers with telemental health services during the COVID-19 pandemic. These interviews were coding for themes using a grounded theory framework. Various themes emerged relating to accessibility of services, parental involvement in therapy, and recommendations for other parents and providers. Suggestions for enhancing the effectiveness and public acceptance of telemental health services will be discussed.
Continuing Education Presentation (1.5 hours)
10:15 - 11:15 a.m. | Ballroom 214C
Don't Quit the Quit: Decreasing Stigma to Empower Women in Recovery
Maridee Shogren DNP, CNM, CLC
Drug addiction and alcoholism consistently rank among the most devalued stigmatized characteristics world-wide. Approximately 2 in 5 women in the United States struggle with illicit drug use. About 4.6 million report opioid misuse or opioid use disorder (OUD). In addition, women with substance use disorders (SUDs) are experiencing unique and distinct differences in stigma related to their substance use. This stigma is coming from varied sources and through many different forms including mislabeling, misinformation, the media, and a devalued maternal/child relationship. Mothers frequently experience different types of adverse health encounters during the perinatal and postpartum period that also contribute to stigma. Don’t Quit the Quit (DQTQ) is a North Dakota grant program funded by the Foundation for Opioid Response Efforts. DQTQ is increasing access to treatment for women with OUD, expanding postpartum doula support for families struggling with OUD, and increasing community education and awareness about OUD in efforts to decrease stigma. This presentation explores the stigma women with opioid use disorder and SUDs may encounter and examines strategies to decrease stigma and improve care for women and families.
- Describe the unique differences in adverse stigma encounters experienced by persons with substance use disorders who are pregnant and parenting
- Recognize the consequences of stigma related to SUDs in persons who are pregnant and parenting
- Consider opportunities to reduce healthcare stigma experienced by persons with substance use disorders who are pregnant and parenting
Dr. Maridee Shogren is a Clinical Professor at the University of North Dakota and a Certified Nurse-Midwife. She has practiced women’s health, obstetrics, and family planning in a variety of settings where she shares her passion for women’s health with her colleagues and her patients. Maridee has been a faculty member at the UND College of Nursing and Professional Disciplines since 2008. Maridee has also been involved in SAMHSA funded grant work at UND where she spent three years on an interprofessional SBIRT training grant and currently works with the Region 8: Mountain Plains Addiction Technology Transfer Center and the Mountain Plains Mental Health Technology Transfer Center Network grant teams. In 2020, Dr. Shogren began work as the principal investigator on the Foundation for Opioid Response Efforts grant funded program, Don’t Quit the Quit, where she is working to increase access to care and grow community support for women who are pregnant or postpartum and in recovery from opioid use disorder. Dr. Shogren has published and has presented nationally on the impact of stigma in pregnant and parenting women.
Lunch on Your Own
11:45 a.m. - 1 p.m.
Paper Session II
1 - 2 p.m. | Ballroom 214C
Afraid of social exclusion: Fear of Missing Out predicts Cyberball-Induced Ostracism
Alex J. Holte, Wendy N. Fisher, and Richard Ferraro
The goal of the current study was to analyze factors which may predispose individuals to feeling ostracized and to examine if these factors also predict one’s sense of control, self-esteem, meaningful existence, and belongingness. Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) and attachment anxiety were both hypothesized to predict scores of ostracism and each of the aforementioned basic needs. An effective sample of 193 young adults completed baseline measures of FoMO and attachment anxiety, the Cyberball ostracism paradigm, and post-measures of ostracism and basic fundamental needs. We found that FoMO, but not attachment anxiety, predicted how ostracized one felt. Likewise, FoMO was inversely related to control, belongingness and meaningful existence. The current research adds to the literature by providing initial work which may suggest FoMO is less about the experiences one misses out on and more about the fear of being excluded by others. Limitations and suggestions for future research are outlined.
Categorizing ambiguous facial expressions
Ilya Nudnou and Benjamin BalasCategorical perception involves our perceptual system creating sharp boundaries along an objectively continuous stimulus property, such as the discrete colors of the rainbow being perceived despite continuous change in wavelength. The same mechanism is thought to take place in facial emotion perception. But how are emotions at these boundaries perceived? We presented participants with morphed emotional faces made by blending different emotional expressions in varying proportions. This task allowed us to identify the most ambiguous images in each morph sequence. Next, we asked participants to respond freely to these ambiguous face morphs and examined these responses via natural language processing methods. The results showed that participants used many more labels than those related to the categories which went into the morphs. These results can inform theories on categorical facial perception as well as the mental representation of facial expressions.
Factors that Impact Food Security in Northern Plains American Indians
Jacque Gray, Lindsey English, and Thomas Petros.
Food insecurity disproportionally effects minority groups, including American Indians (AI); however, little information exists about the extent of food insecurity and health outcomes in American Indians. The purpose of this study is to examine food insecurity in Northern Plains Indians and factors associated with food security. This study was examined data from 341 Adult Northern Plains Indians collected in the summers of 2002 and 2003. A measure of food security was administered (Core Food Security Module developed by the USDA). The impact of sex, age, education level, household income, body mass index (BMI), Quality of Life Score, average hours of sleep, Beck Depression Inventory score on Food security was examined. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine the independent effect of the predictor variables above on food security. The analysis revealed that a higher household income and a higher self-reported quality of life led to higher food security. In contrast, a higher number of self-reported symptoms of depression led to a lower level of food security. The implications of these results for understanding food security and factors that influence food security in Native Americans will be discussed.
Opening the Gait! Effects of Witness Type and Identification Factors on Mock-Juror Decision-Making
Lauren Stornelli, Garrett Berman, and Andre Kehn
Surveillance cameras are used by law enforcement for many purposes, including security, monitoring, and investigating crimes. Although studies have examined participants' ability to accurately match previously viewed faces with faces viewed on surveillance video, few studies have investigated the effects of witness face identification expertise and identification factors on mock-juror decision making. The current study investigated perpetrator identification factors (Multiple identification factors: physical stature, gait, face, clothing vs. gait only) and witness type (detective vs. layperson) on juror decision-making. Participants (n = 239) read a trial transcript depicting an arson and were asked to rate witness effectiveness and reliability and fairness of the identification from the surveillance footage. Results indicated that jurors were more likely to convict when the witness’s identification relied on gait only. These results imply that jurors view one perpetrator identification characteristic, gait, as more precise and therefore more distinctive.
Maladjustment Correlates Associated with Sexual Perpetration Tactics
Katya Mickelson, RaeAnn Anderson, and Alan King
This project completed a partial replication and extension of a prior study (Norton-Baker, Russell, & King, 2018) regarding tactical differences in sexual perpetration victimization strategies. Respondents (n = 559) completed the Revised Sexual Experiences Survey-Long Form Perpetrator (SES-LFP) before being assigned to different macro-tactical groups (i.e. Non-Violent, Coercive, Aggressive, Polytactic). Membership to groups of micro-tactics of sexual perpetration was then assigned (sexual harassment, non-consensual distribution of sexual content, voyeurism, exhibitionism, sexual coercion, sexual coercion facilitated by substances, sexual perpetration, sexual perpetration facilitated by substances, and multiparticipant offenders). Participants completed the PID-5 as well as other measures of maladjustment. Polytactic perpetrators had consistently higher PID-5 domain and facet scores with evidence of other forms of maladjustment (e.g. higher time spent incarcerated, higher rates of job termination, higher rates of relationship instability). Significant differences were found between micro-tactic groups on both PID-5 scores and other indicators of maladjustment. These findings suggested that perpetrators of sexual perpetration can be differentiated in both their macro/micro-tactics and levels of personality maladjustment. Systematic efforts to examine tactical differences in perpetrators may enhance the prediction, prevention, and treatment of sexual perpetration.
2 - 3 p.m. | Ballroom 214D
Attachment Styles and Relationship Social Comparison Interpretations
Hailey George *, Megan Schiltz *, Alex J. Holte M.A., and F. Richard Ferraro Ph.D. * (Indicates shared first-authorship)
How an individual interprets a relationship social comparison influences how they feel about themselves and their relationship. While research has outlined how individuals can form positive or negative interpretations regardless of comparison direction, more research is needed to understand factors which explain how relationship social comparison interpretations (RSCI) are perceived. In the current study, we examined the influence of attachment style and relationship status on both positive upward and negative RSCI. We found that attachment style, but not relationship status predicted both positive upward and negative RSCI. In addition, individuals with secure attachment scored significantly lower in negative, but not positive upward RSCI.
Correlates of Support for the Defund the Police Movement
Mariah Sorby, Madison Adrian, Lauren Stornelli, Mary Cops, Emily Haynes, and Andre Kehn
Past research shows framing effects and demographic characteristics influence support for law enforcement reform. However, there is limited empirical research investigating layperson perceptions of the Defund the Police movement. The purpose of the current study was to investigate beliefs and individual differences related to support for the Defund the Police movement. Undergraduate and crowdsourced participants (N = 396) were asked to complete several scales and questionnaires via Qualtrics. Results revealed a majority of participants oppose defunding the police, but a majority of participants also support increasing funding for social programs. Additionally, women, democrats, urban area residents, more educated individuals, and CNN-viewers have higher support for the movement. However, Fox News viewers and individuals with positive attitudes towards the police have lower support for the movement. Lastly, there were significant differences in support for the movement based on beliefs about the movement’s purpose. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
Examining Attitudes Toward Transgender Defendants
Individuals who identity as transgender are overrepresented in the criminal justice system due to their increased risk of victimization and contact with law enforcement. However, only two known studies (Ringger, 2018; Ringger, 2020) have examined juror perceptions and decisions related to transgender defendants specifically as compared to cisgender defendants. This study sought to fill the gap by further exploring juror decisions in cases involving transgender defendants. Additionally, this study sought to identify attitudinal predictors of guilt and blame for transgender defendants. In this study, participants read crime vignettes featuring transgender and cisgender male and female defendants accused of either prostitution or drug possession. Following the vignettes, participants made judgments of guilt and completed measures related to perpetrator blame, sexism, and attitudes toward transgender individuals. Significant differences in guilt decisions were found between the type of crime (prostitution vs drug possession). Perceptions of blame were higher for female than male defendants charged with prostitution. Transphobia and benevolent sexism were identified as predictors for guilt decisions and perceptions of blame.
Effects of Stimulus Complexity on Stimulus Generalization and Peak Shift
Chris Veenstra and Adam Derenne
Patterns of stimulus generalization vary with experience. Participants trained to discriminate a stimulus paired with reinforcement (S+) from a stimulus paired with extinction (S-) commonly come to respond to stimuli that are not only unlike S-, but more extreme than S+. This biased pattern of responding is known as a peak shift. Peak shift-like patterns of behavior have been observed in a number of naturally occurring contexts. In the present experiment, we examined whether peak shift would appear when participants made judgments about graphical representations of people’s risk for COVID-19. In our experiment, the S+ was a moderate amount of risk, while the S- was a relatively low amount of risk or a relatively high amount of risk for different groups of participants. We additionally sought to understand the effect that stimulus complexity would have on stimulus generalization and peak shift. Therefore, different groups of participants were trained with different sets of stimuli. In a low complexity condition, risk for COVID-19 was represented by a single horizontal bar. In a moderate complexity condition, risk was determined by the collective length of several horizontal bars that represented different factors contributing to one’s overall risk. In a high complexity condition, risk for COVID-19 was determined by a set of bars that represented different risk factors and a second set of bars that represented protective factors. We found that increasing the complexity level of the stimuli caused the generalization gradients to flatten. Peak shift was observed in the moderate complexity condition but not the low complexity condition. Responding in the high complexity condition was poorly differentiated, but some peak-shift-like tendencies were observed.
Factors That Predict Flashbulb Memories for Real and False Mass Shootings
Rich Belz and John-Paul Legerski
As mass shootings have become more frequent in recent years, gaining a better understanding of the public’s attention and perception of these tragic events may aid public policy efforts to decreasing their occurrence. The aim of the current investigation was to examine factors (i.e., mental health, cognitive functioning, political engagement, social desirability) that predict memories for real and false shootings using a flashbulb memory (FBM) framework. Participants (n= 607) were placed into categories depending on the amount of real and false FBM present, and ANOVA was used to analyze survey data to examine participant characteristics associated with FBMs for these events. The results demonstrated significant differences among these groups across various measures of interest. The findings have important implications for FBM research, contribute to the literature on the public’s perception of mass shootings, and help inform research-supported policy measures aimed at reducing these tragedies.
Older Married Couples’ Positive and Negative Emotions Over Time
Cody Combs, Abigail Kroke, and Joelle Ruthig
Emotions greatly impact various aspects of health and well-being across the adult lifespan. Emotions in later life can be impacted by close relationships, and older couples are typically together for several decades. Thus, it is important to understand the emotional experiences of older couples over time. The current study focuses on a community-based sample of 71 heterosexual married couples (husbands’ mean age was 71 years old; wives’ mean age was 69 years old). As part of the larger Grand Cities Healthy Aging Study, participants were asked about their recent positive and negative emotions. Over a two-year period, husbands reported a significant increase in negative emotions whereas wives reported a significant increase in positive emotions. Overall, both husbands and wives enjoyed more positive than negative emotions across the two-year period, with love and frustration being the most commonly experienced positive and negative emotions.
Substance Use Treatment Seeking as an Opportunity for Sexual Violence Intervention
Ellei Burmeister and RaeAnn Anderson
Introduction and Background: Young men, perhaps especially college students, are at greater risk for heavy episodic drinking and other alcohol-related problems. Sexual violence among heavy drinkers has shown to have high rates according to previous literature. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of violence exposure within heavy episodic drinkers. Heavy binge drinking is operationally defined as a participant whose score equals or exceeds eight according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) as this indicates hazardous and harmful alcohol use, as well as a possible alcohol dependence. Method: 294 college men completed an anonymous survey in the spring of 2021. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to measure drinking rates. Results: Prevalence of heavy drinking for college men was reported to be 64.9%. Treatment seeking for mental health services proved to be 9.5% for binge drinkers. Those who had violence histories reported to be 33.9% compared to the 20.6% of men who are not heavy drinkers. Conclusions: This study indicates a higher prevalence of alcoholism among college aged men than previous literature has shown. National efforts to monitor and reduce alcohol use of all types should expand to focus on college students and other young adults. It can be assumed that heavy binge drinkers in college seek physical health treatment, but rarely seek mental health services despite an increased need to. Efforts to offer these services at physical health treatment facilities should be elevated.
They May Not Believe You Remembered That Nose: Juror Perceptions of Eyewitness’ Feature Justifications
Mary Cops, Emily Haynes, Mariah Sorby, Madison Adrian, Lauren Stornelli , and Andre Kehn
The featural justification effect occurs when jurors discredit the confidence of eyewitnesses who provide a confidence statement referencing a facial feature of a suspect at the time of identification (Dodson & Dobolyi, 2015, 2017). The current study examined if presence of expert testimony can alleviate the featural justification effect and sensitize jurors to eyewitness viewing conditions. Three hundred forty-six participants were randomly assigned to one condition in a 3(justification: confidence only vs. unobservable vs. featural) X 3(expert testimony: standard vs. enhanced vs. enhanced+) X 2(viewing condition: good vs. bad) factorial design and asked to provide verdict and case judgments. Results suggest a main effect of viewing condition on verdict; good viewing conditions were more likely to result in guilty verdicts. A significant effect of eyewitness confidence on perceived confidence emerged; eyewitnesses that provided featural justifications were deemed less confident. Expert testimony did not have a significant effect on dependent measures.
What Catches the Eye: The Relationship Between Facial Features and Race on Guilt Ratings
Aujanae Eubanks and Rochelle Bergstrom
Previous studies have found that Afrocentric facial features play a key role in racial categorization over skin color (Kleider-Offutt, 2018; Stepanova & Strobe, 2012); however, there are little to no studies investigating this relationship in a mock jury paradigm. The current study examined the effects of skin color and facial features on guilt ratings within this setting. It was expected that African American defendants with Afrocentric features would receive higher guilt scores compared to Caucasian defendants with Eurocentric features. Undergraduate students were asked to view an image of the defendant, read a mock crime scenario and trial evidence, and provide guilt and fear ratings of the defendant. Results showed participants rated African American defendants as more attractive and Caucasian defendants more feared, although they were unsure about guilt. Results are discussed in light of recent political events and their potential link to implicit biases that could impact juror judgments.
3 - 3:15 p.m. | Mezzanine
3:15 - 3:30 p.m. | Ballrom 214C
2021 Keynote Address
3:30 - 5 p.m. | Ballroom 214C
When Men Behave Badly: The Hidden Roots of Sexual Deception, Harassment, and Assault
Dr. David Buss
Sexual conflict—manifest as deception, persistence, coercion, and force—occurs in sexually reproducing species, from water striders to rhesus macaques. Its profound influence on our psychology and institutions has not been fully recognized. Sexual conflicts occur at all levels of human social life. It is ubiquitous within mating markets, within existing mateships, and in the aftermath of romantic breakups. It occurs within step-families, within biologically intact families, and within coalitions. It permeates status hierarchies, in which power asymmetries can facilitate sexual exploitation. It can motivate kidnapping, terrorism, and warfare. Given its pervasiveness, it would be surprising if humans had not evolved multiple offenses and co-evolved defenses in perpetual sexually antagonistic co-evolutionary arms races. The impacts of sexual conflict are further complicated by modern environments. These enable novel offensive tactics in which defenses can by disabled by drugs, isolation from protective kin, and through hijacking components of our evolved psychology. This talk highlights what is currently known and unknown about the evolutionary psychology of sexual conflict and offers tentative suggestions for reducing sexual conflict.
- Define the concept of evolutionary theory as it pertains to human and animal behavior;
- Identify primary mechanisms by which evolution occurs;
- Define sexual selection and its driving processes;
- Recognize adaptations as they occur;
- Identify potential evolutionary sources for human sexual deception, harassment, and assault.