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2014 Northern Lights Conference Video
Morning Paper Session
Saturday, October 18, 2014
10:00 am. A Structural Equation Model of Juror Sentencing in Hate Crime Cases.
Bradlee W. Gamblin, Brittney L. Fiala, Kelly Jones, Karen Vanderzanden, Andre Kehn, & Joelle Ruthig - University of North Dakota
The purpose of the current study was to identify a model of juror attitudes that predicted their sentencing of a perpetrator in a hate crime case. To investigate this, participants (N = 266) were given the role of a juror in the sentencing phase of a trial about a hate crime against either a gay man or a Black man. Two structural equation models were constructed to examine the decision-making process behind jurors in each case. Results indicated that social dominance orientation predicted juror prejudice, which predicted blame attributions for the victim and the perpetrator, which predicted the juror's recommended sentence. Interestingly, while blame attributions fully mediated the significant relationship between juror prejudice and sentencing in the Black man hate crime, no direct relationship existed between prejudice and sentencing in the gay man hate crime condition. Implications of our findings and future directions for research will also be discussed
10:15 am. Negative Reinforcement Mediates Negative Affect and Substance Use Severity
Theodore Krmpotich & Jeffrey Weatherly - University of North Dakota
Previous research has suggested an indirect relationship between affect and substance use severity being mediation by motivation. The purpose of this study was to see if affect would predict reinforcement contingencies which would, in turn, predict substance use severity. Three-hundred eighty three participants took measures of affect (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule – Extended Version), substance use reinforcement contingencies (Substance Use Functional Assessment), and drug severity. Model fit was determined at the measurement level using Confirmatory Factor Analysis, then at the structural level using Structural Equation Modeling. The model demonstrated good fit (χ2=849.69, df=422, p<0.001; SRMR=0.078; RMSEA=0.052, CI=0.046-0.057; CFI=0.92). We found that reinforcement contingencies acted as a mediator between affect and substance use severity. Negative affect and reinforcement acted as a stronger predictor than the positive affect and reinforcement, suggesting that negative 3 affect and reinforcement contingencies may be especially influential on substance use severity.
10:30 am. Framing Interpersonal Allocations as Gains (Points) or Losses (Penalties) Influences Pro-Social or Competitive Tendencies.
Conner D. Poppke, Chris R. Jones, & Verlin B. Hinsz - North Dakota State University
Prospect theory proposes that people are more sensitive to losses than to gains. A social value orientation measure asks participants to allocate points (gains) to themselves and others, where responses indicate a pro-social, individualistic, or competitive orientation. We questioned whether students would make different allocations if these judgments were posed as losses (penalties). Because people are more sensitive to losses, we predicted that they would make more self-serving choices in the allocation of penalties. When the judgments were framed as gains, participants chose fewer pro-social and more competitive responses relative to judgments framed as losses where the majority gave pro-social responses and few competitive responses. These results indicate that allocation judgments are influenced by whether they are framed as gains (points) or losses (penalties), and are inconsistent with the prospect theory hypothesis that people are loss averse for penalties, suggesting that social value orientations override this loss aversion tendency.
10:45 am. Self-Compassion and Self-Esteem as Predictors of Body Image
Rachel Kramer - American University and University of North Dakota
Researchers have devoted a great amount of effort to determine what factors protect against body dissatisfaction. Research has indicated that selfcompassion predicts lower body dissatisfaction even after controlling for selfesteem (which has already been established as a factor related to lower body dissatisfaction). Self-compassion is a trait by which an individual practices selfkindness, accepts that others may experience similar outcomes, and tries to mindfully attend to their perceptions of their flaws. In order to replicate preliminary findings, 123 undergraduate women participated in a two-part study. They completed the Self-Compassion Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and scales that measure weight concern, body perseveration, and body appreciation. While previous studies have shown that self-compassion predicts unique variance in explaining body image factors, even when controlling for selfesteem, this current study noted that self-esteem carried most of the unique variance in body image. Self-compassion only predicted unique variance beyond self-esteem for body appreciation.
11:00 am. Challenges in Indian Country: An INSPYDE Perspective
Moderator: Royleen Ross, MA Participants: Samantha Beauchman, PhD, Casey McDougall, Ph.D Discussant: Doug McDonald, PhD.
Abstract: The behavioral health challenges for tribal communities are as complex as they are sometimes overwhelming. It has become increasingly clear that strategies for meaningful and lasting positive changes require concerted efforts from multiple entities. Some of these entities are local, in terms of local Indian Health Services (I.H.S.) facilities and tribal behavioral health programs, tribal leadership, schools, and local elders and community leaders. Others resources are external, including IHS area/regional/headquarters, university training programs, and even other tribes. Further complicating these challenges are issues of intergenerational trauma effects, racism, poor eating/exercise habits, as well as domestic violence and psychopathology at higher rates than those seen in the majority culture. This symposium, composed of current and former UND INPSYDE program students and staff, seeks to identify some of the efforts employed (or needed) to overcome these challenges, as well as suggestions for future efforts that are in keeping with best-practice methods while maintaining cultural competence and integrity.
1:00 pm. Learning About Posterior Probability: Do Diagrams or Elaborative Interrogation Help?
Virginia Clinton1, 2, Martha Alibali2, & Mitchell Nathan2
1 University of North Dakota, 2 University of Wisconsin – Madison
To learn from a text, students must make meaningful connections among related ideas in that text. This study examined the effectiveness of two methods of improving connections—diagrams and elaborative interrogation—in written lessons about posterior probability. Undergraduate students (N = 245) read a lesson in one of three diagram conditions (text only, diagram without redundant text, and diagram with redundant text) and one of three questioning conditions (read twice, embedded questioning, and elaborative interrogation). When the lesson was read twice, diagrams with redundant text helped learning from the lesson relative to text only. Elaborative interrogation negatively affected learning from the lesson, relative to reading the lesson twice. These findings were independent of the effects of pretest performance and previous statistics coursework. One possible explanation for these results is that the quality of answers to the elaborative interrogations was poor. Implications of these findings for the multimedia principle, redundancy principle, and instruction of probabilistic reasoning are discussed.
Note: This video is unavailable.
1:15 pm. Build a Fruit Tree Orchard and They Will Come: Creating an Eco- Identity via Community Gardening Activities.
August John Hoffman, Stephen Doody, & Rich Downs - Metropolitan State University.
The theories of eco-identity, community development and community service gardening activities were addressed in the current study. The project explored how ecologically-based gardening and fruit tree planting activities helped to establish and define an eco-identity among diverse participants. Participants consisted of student volunteers and community members (n = 52) who were assigned a variety of projects in the development of the community garden and fruit tree orchard (i.e., cultivating, weeding and planting) to produce healthy foods to local food pantries and community centers. Participants were administered the Eco-Identity Community Service Questionnaire and interviewed regarding their overall experiences during the gardening activity. Additionally, a qualitative summary of post-experimental interviews regarding the gardening experiences of participants was recorded. Study findings and suggestions for future.
Note: This video is unavailable.
1:30 pm. How Naïve College Students Fake-Good and Fake-Bad on the MCMI-III.
Joseph C. Miller1, Jaclyn M. Reckow1, Susan T. Scoullar2, John D. Tyler1, Rosanne McBride1, Alan R. King1, & Thomas V. Petros1.
1 University of North Dakota, 2 University of British Columbia, Kelowna
We contrasted the base rate (BR) scores of students who responded honestly, attempted to malinger, or attempted to deny symptoms when completing the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory, 3rd Edition. A small sample of clinical respondents was added as a post-hoc comparison group. While scales developed specifically to detect fake-good and fake-bad sets were, generally, unhelpful in identifying groups, Group differences on a variety of personality and syndrome scales were suggestive of naïve beliefs about pathology and mental health that may be used to identify dishonest responding on the test. We review these findings.
1:45 pm. Amount of Natural Light Predicts Binge Eating in Women with Bulimia Nervosa in the Natural Environment.
Kyle P. De Young1,2, Jason M. Lavender2, Stephen A. Wonderlich2,3, Ross D. Crosby2,3, Scott G. Engel2,3, & James E. Mitchell2,3
1 University of North Dakota, Department of Psychology, 2 Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, 3 University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences
Binge eating (BE) frequency in bulimia nervosa (BN) may be inversely related to bright light exposure, as suggested by seasonality and light therapy studies. This study tested whether BE in the natural environment can be predicted by availability of natural light. Women with BN (N=133) rated the occurrence of BE and affect several times per day over 2 weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Archival weather data quantified the amount of daylight, cloud cover, and temperature on EMA days. Day-level data were analyzed with generalized estimating equations predicting BE with daylight, cloud cover, and temperature, while controlling for negative and positive affect. These variables accounted for 5.1% of variance in BE. BE was least likely on long/clear days (30.5%) and most likely on long/overcast days (40.8%), with short/overcast and clear/short days being intermediate. Light exposure may impact risk for BE; however the mechanism of this effect remains unknown.
Saturday, October 18, 2014
3:00 pm - 5:00 pm
Is Psychology a Science?
Confronting Public Perceptions and Misperceptions of the Study of Human Nature.
SCOTT O. LILIENFELD, Ph.D. Emory University