The time after 1990 is still marked by efforts to increase self-determination powers, but increasingly, the federal courts impose limitations on Native governments.
While a narrow interpretation of tribal sovereignty and history is again threatening sovereign powers, other factors work in favor of an increased voice by at least some Native nations.
Several tribes start to operate casinos, and a few gain economic and political power. An increasing awareness of dire social, economic, and legal conditions on other reservations - helped along by Native activists, sporadic media interest, movies, and popular literature - gives poorer reservations a chance to bring their issues to the public's attention. This is helped greatly by the development of the internet.
After the turn of the century, a renewed interest in the status of women in society helps to lend a spotlight on the situation of Native women, and violence against them. This also brings a new emphasis on tribal policing, jurisdiction, and sovereignty.
The two decades are also marked by renewed attention to the legacy of allotment. The mismanagement of the trust responsibility by the government becomes very clear throughout the Cobell lawsuit, leading a federal judge to state that the federal government in its Indian policies is still a pathetic, oppressive leftover of cultural attitudes from the 19th century.
The renewed voices of indigenous peoples also lead to the UN Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, which the United States at first votes against, but then, at least rhetorically, supports.