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Caroline Campbell, PhD
As a historian of modern France, Caroline Campbell's research interests focus on the intersections between women, gender, empire, and political beliefs. Professor Campbell's first book, Political Belief in France, 1927-1945: Gender, Empire, and Fascism in the Croix de Feu and Parti Social Français (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, December 2015), is the first full-length study of women in the French far right in the era of fascism. Focusing on one of the largest and most powerful political movements in French history, the Croix de Feu, the book traces how women transformed the Croix de Feu from a violent paramilitary organization to a social reform movement that promoted France's heritage as a Christian civilization. In doing so, women used the Croix de Feu as a vehicle to expand their spheres of influence and create new models of feminine and masculine social and political action. Not only did metropolitan women help lay the groundwork for the authoritarian, antisemitic Vichy regime (1940-1944) but the Croix de Feu in North Africa became the premier defender of the French empire by virulently opposing emerging anticolonial movements.
Professor Campbell's current research explores the ways in which colonial conquest shaped France's political culture in the 1930s. From 1903-1934, France embarked upon a violent conquest of Morocco, which had profound influences on the soldiers who participated in colonial warfare. Upon leaving the army, some ex-servicemen were drawn not to the political left or center, but to the radical right, where they transposed methods of colonial violence to political situations in the 1930s and 1940s. This project thus examines the relationships between colonialism, democracy, fascism, and world war.
Professor Campbell's courses focus on modern continental Europe and French imperialism. All of her courses grapple with issues of political difference, race, gender, class, imperialism, and connections and divergences between people living throughout the world. Professor Campbell joined the UND History Department after earning her Ph.D. from the University of Iowa in 2009.
- HIST 102: Western Civilization II (1500-present)
- HIST 106: World Civilizations (1000-present)
- HIST 327: France and Empire (1789-present)
- HIST 328: Historical Perspectives on Human Rights (from the Enlightenment to today)
- HIST 423: Historical Perspectives on the Holocaust
- HIST 426: Revolutions in Modern Europe
- HIST 450: European Social History
- HIST 515: Graduate Seminar: Modern Europe
- HIST 594: Graduate Readings: Modern Europe; Modern France
“The Colonial Roots of Political Violence in France: The Croix de Feu, the Popular Front and the Riots of 22 March 1936 in Morocco.” In Political Violence and Democracy in Western Europe, 1918-1940, edited by Chris Millington and Kevin Passmore. 127-143. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.
"'Our Body Doesn't have to be Ugly': Physical Culture, Gender, and Racial Rejuvenation, in the Croix de Feu/Parti social français." In The French Right Between the Wars: Political and Intellectual Movements from Conservatism to Fascism, edited by Samuel Kalman and Sean Kennedy. 163-179. New York: Berghahn Books, 2014.
"Building a Movement, Dismantling the Republic: Women and Political Extremism in the Croix de Feu/Parti Social Français, 1927-1940" French Historical Studies 35, no. 4 (Fall 2012): 691-726.
- "Women and Gender in the Croix de Feu and Parti Social Français: Creating a Nationalist Youth Culture, 1927-1939," Proceedings of the Western Society for French History 36 (2008/09): 249-264.
Grants, Awards, and Fellowships
- Arts and Humanities Scholarship Initiative, University of North Dakota, 2015
- Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences Award, University of North Dakota, 2014
- NEH Summer Stipend, 2011
- American Philosophical Society Franklin Award, 2010
- Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences Award, University of North Dakota, 2010
- Summer Fellowship, University of Iowa Graduate College, 2008
- T. Anne Cleary International Dissertation Research Fellowship, University of Iowa Graduate College, 2007
- Marcus Bach Fellowship for dissertation research related to ethics and religion, University of Iowa, 2006
- Stanley Fellowship for Graduate Student Research Abroad, University of Iowa International
- William Aydelotte Fellowship Dissertation Research Fellowship, University of Iowa, 2006